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Soy-Bean Cultivation and Full Fat Soya Production in Nigeria; The Opportunity

Soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).

Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many prepackaged meals;soy vegetable oil is another product of processing the soybean crop. For example, soybean products such as textured vegetable protein (TVP) are ingredients in many meat and dairy analogues. Soybeans produce significantly more protein per acre than most other uses of land.

Nigeria presently produces about 500,000 MT of Soybean annually making it the largest producer of the product on the African continent. Soybean is a legume which is produced in most the middle belt of the country with Benue state accounting for about 45% of the total production in country.

There are numerous varieties of soya bean ideal for different climates and vegetation belt but the most common varieties are TGX 1448-2E, TGX 1485-ID and TGX 1835-10E. These varieties can be purchased from seed companies or from the Ministry of Agriculture where its viability, freedom from disease and pest is guaranteed.

Before sowing, the seeds should be treated with captan (at the rate of 1 sachet/8 kg of seeds) before planting for protection against soil-borne fungal diseases.) to keep them safe from soil borne diseases. Soybean seeds easily lose their viability. It is common for soybean, even when stored properly, not to germinate after 12 –15 months in storage. Therefore, use seeds that are not more than 12 months old to ensure good germination.

Sort out the good seeds for planting to ensure that they are free from insects, disease infestation, and weed seeds. Do not purchase seeds from the open market as the germination potential is not guaranteed.

Sow soybean by hand, planter, or by drilling. Plant 3 to 4 seeds/hole at a spacing of 75 cm between rows and 10 cm between stands. Alternatively, drill seeds at 50–75 cm between rows and 5 cm within rows.

For the early maturing varieties, a spacing of 50 cm between rows and 5–10 cm within rows is recommended because they respond better to narrow spacing than the late-maturing varieties. Do not sow seeds more than 2–5 cm deep. Deeper planting may result in loss of vigor or failure of seedlings to emerge.

Soybean matures within 3–4 months after planting and requires timely harvesting to check excessive yield losses. At maturity, the pod is straw-colored. It is recommended that soybean be harvested when about 85% of the pods have turned brown for a non-shattering variety but 80% for shattering varieties.

Soybean prior to oil extraction is referred to as Full Fat Soybean. Full Fat Soybean meal is an adequately heat processed whole soybean. It contains complete amount of oil and protein naturally present in soybeans. They valued as a good poultry feed ingredient owing to its high oil (18%) and protein (38%) content.
Full fat soybean meal is different from regular Soybean Meal in that it has a full fat complement. Full fat Soybean has not been solvent extracted and it is often used as an energy source or for general balancing of the formula.

Nigeria’s installed annual soybean crushing capacity is estimated at approximately 600,000 MT. An estimated 255,000 tons of soybeans were crushed in MY2010/11, representing only 42 percent of installed processing capacity. Eight large processors account for nearly 60 percent of Nigeria’s soybean crushing industry.

Industry sources forecast crushing to rise to 271,000 tons in MY2011/12 on account of the anticipated increased soybeans production. Soybeans are crushed to obtain oil (for industrial and refined for food use) and soybean meal/cake for animal feed.

The demand for FFS exceeds supply owing to its importance as a constituent of animal feeds all over the world e.g. Broilers eat broiler mash which must contain 55% FFS to take care of animal’s energy and protein needs. Nigeria with a population of over 165 million people is a large market for poultry, swine and fish products which automatically creates a market for the food being eaten by these animals.

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At Foraminifera Market Research (www.foramfera.com), we provide bespoke and up to date market research reports. Our reports are designed to assist start-ups to understand the legal and financial requirements of starting the business, the market trends vis-a-vis demand and supply, competition, risk identification and mitigation strategies.

You can purchase our reports on the following subject matter
SOY MILK PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
SOY FLOUR PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
SOYA OIL AND CAKE PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
FULL FAT SOYA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
SOYA BEANS EXPORT IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
SOY-DAWADAWA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT

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