Agriculture, Agro – Processing, Forestry And Fishing

Mechanized Maize (corn) Farming (cultivation) and Corn Flakes Production in Nigeria; The Opportunity.

Nigerian agriculture is characterized by considerable regional and crop diversity. Analysis of this sector, particularly the food sub-sector, is fraught with serious data problems. However, the available statistics provide a broad overview of development in agriculture upon which we can make some broad generalizations about its role in economic development and structural change in Nigeria.

In the 1960s, the agricultural sector was the most important in terms of contributions to domestic production, employment and foreign exchange earnings. The situation remained almost the same three decades later with the exception that it is no longer the principal foreign exchange earner, a role now being played by oil.

The sector remained stagnant during the oil boom decade of the 1970s, and this accounted largely for the declining share of its contributions. The trend in the share of agriculture in the GDP shows a substantial variation and long-term decline from 60% in the early 1960s through 48.8% in the 1970s and 22.2% in the 1980s. Unstable and often inappropriate economic policies (of pricing, trade and exchange rate), the relative neglect of the sector and the negative impact of oil boom were also important factors responsible for the decline in its contributions.

On its diversity, Nigerian agriculture features tree and food crops, forestry, livestock and fisheries. In 1993 at 1984 constant factor cost, crops (the major source of food) accounted for about 30% of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP), livestock about 5%, forestry and wildlife about 1.3% and fisheries accounted 1.2%.

One of the food crops grown in Nigeria is Maize. Maize (Zea mays L.), or corn as it is called in USA, has a multitude of uses and ranks second to wheat among the world’s cereal crops in terms of total production. Also, because of its worldwide distribution and lower prices relative to other cereals, maize has a wider range of uses than any other cereal.

Worldwide production of maize is 785 million tons, with the largest producer, the United States, producing 42%. Africa produces 6.5% and the largest African producer is Nigeria with nearly 8 million tons, followed by South Africa. Africa imports 28% of the required maize from countries outside the continent.

According to 2007 FAO estimates, 158 million hectares of maize are harvested worldwide. Africa harvests 29 million hectares, with Nigeria, the largest producer in SSA, harvesting 3%, followed by Tanzania.

Yield per hectare of 2-4 tons per hectare should be expected though the actual yield is a function of the seedling used and the agricultural practice carried out during the life span of the crop. It takes about 90 to 120 days for maize to mature. Fertilizer application would help to improve soil fertility and crop yield. You can use 200 kg of NPK fertilizer (25:10:10) per hectare.

Maize can be processed into different products for various end uses at the traditional level and on an industrial scale. One of such products produced from corn (maize) is corn flakes.

Corn flakes are food made by combining corn with sugar, vitamins and minerals to make them as nutritious as possible. For producing the fancy flakes specially designed flaker will be used. At present, corn flakes are popularly known as breakfast food in the world at large and generally taken with milk. Maize is the major raw material used for the manufacture of corn flakes.

Breakfast cereals witnessed current value growth of 25% in 2014. The primary consumers for breakfast cereals continued to be urban consumers. This was because urban consumers prefer a fast arrangement for breakfast due to their lifestyles, and breakfast cereals, especially flakes, provide exactly that.

Kellogg Co maintained a clear lead in breakfast cereals in 2014, claiming a value share of 26% with a broad portfolio that covers several categories and includes a number of global brands with high quality reputations. The popularity of the brand name guarantees that distributors give it preference and therefore it has a strong national distribution.

However, the company’s brands are premium priced and generally only consumed by middle- to high-income earners. Nestlé Nigeria ranked second with a value share of 16%, thanks to the popularity of its Golden Morn brand, while Nasco Group (Nigeria) Ltd rounds out the top three with an 11% value share, as its locally-produced Nasco brand is price competitive.

With a population of over 165 million people and an estimated national population growth rate of 5.7% per annum ,an average economic growth rate of 3.5% per annum in the past five (5) years, Nigeria has a large market for corn flakes.

———————————————————————————————————————
Foraminifera Market Research Limited (www.foramfera.com) is part of a family of businesses, which includes several brands such as

Hausworth Nigeria Limited owners of

365 Home Improvement — www.365homeimprovement.com (Nigeria’s One Stop Home Improvement Portal)
365 Property Portal — www.365propertyportal.com (Property listing, building materials sales and movers in Nigeria)

Kyneli Business Support Services owners of

www.365campaigner.com

365 Campaigner is a complete suite of social collaboration, communication and management tools for your team. From List building solution to event announcement and CRM, 365 Campaigner provides everything you need to boost sales, step up productivity and manage all day-to-day activities.

365 Campaign is the one stop shop for digital marketing solutions for businesses, politicians, religious organizations and individuals.
———————————————————————————————————————

At Foraminifera Market Research (www.foramfera.com), we provide bespoke and up to date market research reports. Our reports are designed to assist start-ups to understand the legal and financial requirements of starting the business, the market trends vis-a-vis demand and supply, competition, risk identification and mitigation strategies.

You can order our reports by clicking any of the links below

MAIZE FLOUR, GERM, BRAN AND GRIT PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT.
MAIZE SUPPLY TO LOCAL INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
CORN FLAKES PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
MAIZE STARCH PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

Access our other Market Research Reports or investment opportunities in Nigeria by clicking on the link below

MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS IN NIGERIA
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN NIGERIA

Contact us with any of the details provided below to arrange a meeting

Office Phone Number: 01- 295 24 13 (Monday – Saturday; 8 am – 5 pm)

Mobile Number: +234 (0) 8033782777;+ 234 (0) 908 335 7733 (Monday – Saturday; 8 am – 6 pm)

E-Mail Address: enquiries@foramfera.com

CC: foraminiferamarketresearch@yahoo.com

Office Address:

61-65 Egbe- Isolo Road,

Iyana Ejigbo Shopping Arcade,

Block C, Suite 39,

Iyana Ejigbo Bus Stop,

Ejigbo, Lagos.

Mechanized Maize Farming (Cultivation) and Maize Flour, Bran, Germ and Grits Production in Nigeria; The Opportunity.

Maize (Zea mays, L.) is a staple food of great socio-economic importance in the Sub-Saharan Africa of which Nigeria is inclusive with per capital kg/year of 40. Nigeria has an annual maize production in excess of 7 million metric tons. In terms of volume produced, maize is the third most important cereal grown in Nigeria after sorghum and millet. It comes after wheat and rice in terms of world importance.

However, the unfolding performance of maize can be attributed to the fact that, bulk of the country’s farm, over 90% is dependent on subsistence agriculture (small holder farmers) with rudimentary farm system, low capitalization and low yield per hectare. Moreover, price fluctuation, diseases and pest, poor storage facilities and efficiency of resource utilization are the identified problems of low maize production in Nigeria.

The situation highlighted above has led to a deficit in supply of maize which current stands at about 14 million tons annually to the 10.3 million tones being supplied annually.

Maize after the wheat & Rice is the most important cereal grain in the world, providing nutrients for humans & animals and serving as basic raw material for the production of oil, protein, alcoholic beverages, food stuff & starch.

Nigeria is currently the tenth largest producer of maize in the world, and the largest maize producer in Africa (IITA, 2012). It is estimated that seventy percent of farmers are smallholders accounting for 90 percent of total farm output.

Yield per hectare of 2-4 tons per hectare should be expected though the actual yield is a function of the seedling used and the agricultural practice carried out during the life span of the crop. It takes about 90 to 120 days for maize to mature. Fertilizer application would help to improve soil fertility and crop yield. You can use 200 kg of NPK fertilizer (25:10:10) per hectare.

Maize gives the highest conversion of dry substance to meat, milk and eggs compared to other cereal grains. Maize is a valuable feed grain, because it is among the highest in net energy content and lowest in protein and fibre content. Primary products derived from dry milling of maize are maize flour, maize bran and germ.

Corn meal / flour is a meal (coarse flour) made from dried maize (corn). It is a common staple food, and is ground to fine, medium, and coarse consistencies, but not as fine as wheat flour.

It is used in biscuit and bread production. It can be fortified with Soya meal resulting in a high protein, high-energy food. Maize flour is now used regularly in many households and eateries.

Bran, outer coat of a cereal grain—e.g., wheat, rye, and corn—mechanically removed from commercial flour and meal by bolting or sifting. Maize bran is extensively used as feed for farm animals.
Bran is used as food for humans (in cereals or mixed with flour in bread) to add roughage (i.e., cellulose) to the diet. It is also used in dyeing and calico printing.

The nutritional value of bran depends on the content of flour particles (the less flour and the more shell, the lower the nutritional value). The average composition of wheat bran is 14.8 percent water, 15.5 percent protein, 3.2 percent fat, 8.4 percent cellulose, 53.2 percent nitrogen-free extractive substances, and 4.9 percent ash. One hundred kg of bran contains 71–78 feed units and 12.5–13 kg of digestible protein.

The germ, which constitutes 8-14% of the total weight of the corn grain, includes 84-86% of the total oil content of the corn. The germ is the primary product for making corn oil and one of the important ingredients of animal fodder.

The germ oil contains unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic 56%, oleic 30%, linolenic 0.7%) and 14% of saturated fatty acids. Its protein part includes about 37% globulins, 51% glutelin, 5% zein, and 7% of non-soluble oils. Maize germ also carries a wide range of amino acids and is rich in vitamin Е (tocopherol), beta-sitostiron and phytin.

Grits refers to a ground-corn food of Native American origin that is common in the Southern United States and eaten mainly at breakfast. They are also used in the production of beer.

———————————————————————————————————————
Foraminifera Market Research Limited (www.foramfera.com) is part of a family of businesses, which includes several brands such as

Hausworth Nigeria Limited owners of

365 Home Improvement — www.365homeimprovement.com (Nigeria’s One Stop Home Improvement Portal)
365 Property Portal — www.365propertyportal.com (Property listing, building materials sales and movers in Nigeria)

Kyneli Business Support Services owners of

www.365campaigner.com

365 Campaigner is a complete suite of social collaboration, communication and management tools for your team. From List building solution to event announcement and CRM, 365 Campaigner provides everything you need to boost sales, step up productivity and manage all day-to-day activities.

365 Campaign is the one stop shop for digital marketing solutions for businesses, politicians, religious organizations and individuals.
———————————————————————————————————————

At Foraminifera Market Research (www.foramfera.com), we provide bespoke and up to date market research reports. Our reports are designed to assist start-ups to understand the legal and financial requirements of starting the business, the market trends vis-a-vis demand and supply, competition, risk identification and mitigation strategies.

You can order our reports by clicking any of the links below

MAIZE FLOUR, GERM, BRAN AND GRIT PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT.
MAIZE SUPPLY TO LOCAL INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
CORN FLAKES PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
MAIZE STARCH PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

Access our other Market Research Reports or investment opportunities in Nigeria by clicking on the link below

MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS IN NIGERIA
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN NIGERIA

Contact us with any of the details provided below to arrange a meeting

Office Phone Number: 01- 295 24 13 (Monday – Saturday; 8 am – 5 pm)

Mobile Number: +234 (0) 8033782777;+ 234 (0) 908 335 7733 (Monday – Saturday; 8 am – 6 pm)

E-Mail Address: enquiries@foramfera.com

CC: foraminiferamarketresearch@yahoo.com

Office Address:

61-65 Egbe- Isolo Road,

Iyana Ejigbo Shopping Arcade,

Block C, Suite 39,

Iyana Ejigbo Bus Stop,

Ejigbo, Lagos.

Ethanol Importation in Nigeria; The Opportunities.

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, ETOH) is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic, agreeable odor. In dilute aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more concentrated solutions it has a burning taste. Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, is an alcohol, a group of chemical compounds whose molecules contain a hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon atom.

The word alcohol derives from Arabic al-kuhul, which denotes a fine powder of antimony produced by distilling antimony and used as an eye makeup. Alcohol originally referred to any fine powder, but medieval alchemists later applied the term to the refined products of distillation, and this led to the current usage.

Ethyl alcohol or ethanol can either be produced by direct fermentation of cassava, corn, cane juice or from molasses (any agricultural product that has starch contents), which is a by-product of the sugar manufacturing process. In Nigeria, ethanol can be produced only from cassava whereas, in india molasses is used and mills in Brazil produce ethanol directly from sugarcane juice. Ethanol can be used for potable alcohol industry, chemical industry and as a bio-fuel in vehicles (direct/blended with gasoline).

In Nigeria, ethanol is consumed primarily by portable alcohol industry and chemical industries.

Nigeria currently spends N 160 billion annually to import ethanol for industrial use while local production only accounts for 3% of ethanol consumption in the country.

With a population of over 165 million people and an estimated national population growth rate of 5.7% per annum, an average economic growth rate of 3.5% per annum in the past five (5) years, Nigeria has a large market for ethanol.

Some of the major consumers of ethanol in Nigeria includes

1) Alcoholic / Beverages Industries: In the production of The many products of various gin, brandy, whisky, wine, etc
2) Cosmetics Production: For the production of perfumes, dyes, after-shave lotions, etc.
3) Paint Industries: Paint makers consume a lot of ethanol during the production of certain paints and thinners.
4) Pharmaceutical Industries: Pharmaceutical Industries use ethanol in the production of some drugs

The domestic demand for ethanol is estimated at over four hundred (400,000,000) million litres annually while local production is about nine – ten (9,000,000 – 10,000,000) litres per annum.

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Foraminifera Market Research Limited (www.foramfera.com) is part of a family of businesses, which includes several brands such as

Hausworth Nigeria Limited owners of

365 Home Improvement — www.365homeimprovement.com (Nigeria’s One Stop Home Improvement Portal)
365 Property Portal — www.365propertyportal.com (Property listing, building materials sales and movers in Nigeria)

Kyneli Business Support Services owners of

www.365campaigner.com

365 Campaigner is a complete suite of social collaboration, communication and management tools for your team. From List building solution to event announcement and CRM, 365 Campaigner provides everything you need to boost sales, step up productivity and manage all day-to-day activities.

365 Campaign is the one stop shop for digital marketing solutions for businesses, politicians, religious organizations and individuals.
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————–

At Foraminifera Market Research (www.foramfera.com), we provide bespoke and up to date market research reports. Our reports are designed to assist start-ups to understand the legal and financial requirements of starting the business, the market trends vis-a-vis demand and supply, competition, risk identification and mitigation strategies.

You can purchase our reports on the following subject matter

PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL RAW CASSAVA IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
MECHANIZED CASSAVA CULTIVATION AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT

Access our other Market Research Reports or investment opportunities in Nigeria by clicking on the link below

MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS IN NIGERIA
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN NIGERIA

Do you require a business plan or feasibility report on the subject matter? Contact us with any of the details provided below to arrange a meeting

Office Phone Number: 01- 295 24 13 (Monday – Saturday; 8 am – 5 pm)

Mobile Number: +234 (0) 8033782777;+ 234 (0) 908 335 7733 (Monday – Saturday; 8 am – 6 pm)

E-Mail Address: enquiries@foramfera.com

CC: foraminiferamarketresearch@yahoo.com

Office Address:

61-65 Egbe- Isolo Road,

Iyana Ejigbo Shopping Arcade,

Block C, Suite 39,

Iyana Ejigbo Bus Stop,

Ejigbo, Lagos.

Coconut Plantation and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) Production in Nigeria; The Investment Opportunity.

Any nation that wants to develop must look inwards to identify areas where it has comparative advantage over other nations and seek to develop the identified areas.

Apart from hydrocarbon of which Nigeria is the sixth largest exporter of crude oil and has the second largest known deposit of natural gas in the world, Nigeria also has comparative advantage in the Agricultural sector, where varieties of crops and animals are produced and reared respectively due to favorable climatic condition, good soil structure and the fact that over 70% of the entire land mass of the country is arable, though only about 48% are presently been cultivated.

One striking aspect of the economic viable and realistic agricultural produce in Nigeria is coconut. With more than 86 countries worldwide producing this crop and a total of about 64.3 billion nuts per annum as of 2013, the demand is on the increase. Little is known about a wonder crop such as this that interest experts in the value chain of agricultural exploration for its use not only in a variety of industry, but also as every part of the coconut is virtually useful for economic value. This crop can be grown in sandy soils with immense cravings for sunlight, salinity, regular rainfall and high humidity, making the tropics and sub tropics a suitable abode for its cultivation.

Coconut needs rainfall level of between 1000 mm. to 3000 mm., 2000 ft and 70 per cent of air moisture, good draining facility, sandy soil rich in humus content, in depth of 3 mts. and soil PH from 6 to 7. The plant requires temperature from 27° Celsius to 36° and the tree needs sunlight most but day and night temperature variation at 5° Celsius.

With a spacing of 7.5 x 7.5 metres, 178 coconut palms would be planted per one hectare. The best planting season is between April and May. The harvest and fruiting strength is more 30 years.

In terms of varieties, though many varieties of coconut exist, Western Tall, Tall X Dwarf types of trees are planted for nuts and oil. Dwarf varieties like Savukot, MalaionEllo Orange and Savukot Green are planted for tender coconut. For big nuts Yazpanam trees and for more nuts Ayiram Kaichi trees are suitable. Tall hybrids and dwarf are the major varieties we have in Nigeria.

Coconut hybrids can give 250 coconuts per tree per year, leading to annual production of one to 17,000 coconuts per acre, approximately 500 million of water while it gives 200 nuts per tree, which means about 3 ½ tonnes per acre and it gives about 60 per cent of oil.

In Nigeria, the leading producing states out of the 20 are Niger, Kano, Jigawa, Zamfara,Kebbi, Sokoto, Katsina, Kaduna, Adamawa, Yobe, Borno, Taraba, Plateau, Nasarawa, Bauchi, Lagos and Ogun states.

Coconut oil is widely used in the manufacturing of soaps, hair oil, cosmetics and other industrial products, its husk is a source of fibre which supports a sizable coir industry. The tender nuts supplies coconut water, a popular thirst quencher of health and hygienic benefit.

Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) may be defined as the naturally processed, chemically free and additive-free product from fresh coconut meat or its derivative (coconut milk and coconut milk residue), which has not undergone any further chemical processing after extraction. VCO is the newest, high-value coconut product very much sought after for its human, nutraceutical benefits and as a functional food. It is the purest form of coconut oil, water white in color, contains natural vitamin E and with very low free fatty acid content (even without refining) and low peroxide value.

It is produced at temperature below 100ºC. It is cholesterol and aflatoxin free and contains high amount of lauric acid and 1% fatty acid rendering the products to be shelf stable for two years.

Ideal Virgin Coconut Oil must possess the following characteristics:

a) Water white color;
b) Contain not higher than 0.1% free fatty acid;
c) Maximum of 0.1% moisture content;
d) Maximum peroxide value of 0.5 mg per kilogram of oil;
e) Lauric fatty acid content of 46-53%; and
f) 40% mg tocopherol (vitamin E) per kilogram of VCO.

The emerging major uses are as:

• a hair and skin conditioner;
• an oil base for various cosmetic and skin care products;
• a carrier oil for aromatherapy and massage oils;
• a nutraceutical and functional food

The demand for VCO is rapidly increasing in Nigeria. The fast – developing niche and high value markets for VCO as a food supplement, as a body moisturizer and a carrier oil for aromatherapy, as a hair conditioner etc. The national consumption of coconut oil is rising. Most of the supply of VCO into Nigerian market is from the Republic of Benin and Togo Republic.

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————-
Foraminifera Market Research Limited (www.foramfera.com) is part of a family of businesses, which includes several brands such as

Hausworth Nigeria Limited owners of

365 Home Improvement — www.365homeimprovement.com (Nigeria’s One Stop Home Improvement Portal)
365 Property Portal — www.365propertyportal.com (Property listing, building materials sales and movers in Nigeria)

Kyneli Business Support Services owners of

www.365campaigner.com

365 Campaigner is a complete suite of social collaboration, communication and management tools for your team. From List building solution to event announcement and CRM, 365 Campaigner provides everything you need to boost sales, step up productivity and manage all day-to-day activities.

365 Campaign is the one stop shop for digital marketing solutions for businesses, politicians, religious organizations and individuals.
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————–

At Foraminifera Market Research (www.foramfera.com), we provide bespoke and up to date market research reports. Our reports are designed to assist start-ups to understand the legal and financial requirements of starting the business, the market trends vis-a-vis demand and supply, competition, risk identification and mitigation strategies.

You can purchase our reports on the following subject matter

VIRGIN COCONUT OIL (VCO) PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
SOY MILK PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
SOY FLOUR PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
SOYA OIL AND CAKE PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
FULL FAT SOYA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
SOYA BEANS EXPORT IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT
SOY-DAWADAWA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA; THE FEASIBILITY REPORT

Access our other Market Research Reports or investment opportunities in Nigeria by clicking on the link below

MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS IN NIGERIA
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN NIGERIA

Do you require a business plan or feasibility report on the subject matter? Contact us with any of the details provided below to arrange a meeting

Office Phone Number: 01- 295 24 13 (Monday – Saturday; 8 am – 5 pm)

Mobile Number: +234 (0) 8033782777;+ 234 (0) 908 335 7733 (Monday – Saturday; 8 am – 6 pm)

E-Mail Address: enquiries@foramfera.com

CC: foraminiferamarketresearch@yahoo.com

Office Address:

61-65 Egbe- Isolo Road,

Iyana Ejigbo Shopping Arcade,

Block C, Suite 39,

Iyana Ejigbo Bus Stop,

Ejigbo, Lagos.

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